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Eye Problems

What are some common eye problems?

Some people have eye issues at birth. Others develop disorders that affect eye health as they age. Many medical conditions impact the way your eye and brain work together. When that happens, your doctor may recommend treatments that include medication.

Below are some common conditions that affect the eye and impact vision.

Refractive errors

Refractive eye issues cause light to bend improperly when passing through the cornea and lens. That causes problems with the way you perceive objects around you. Common eye disorders related to refractive errors include nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Most people correct their vision by wearing corrective lenses or having surgery.

Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, or age-related macular degeneration, typically starts as people approach middle age. The central vision required for tasks like reading and driving starts to deteriorate.

Common symptoms include:

  • Blurry vision when looking at fine print
  • Dark spots floating in the central part of your vision field
  • Straight lines may appear curved

While there’s currently no cure for macular degeneration, some patients benefit from low vision rehabilitation. For advanced cases, doctors may recommend a surgery involving implanting a telescopic lens into the eye that magnifies a person’s line of vision.


A cataract is a cloudiness that develops in one or both lenses of your eyes. It’s one of the leading causes of blindness around the world. They may be present at birth or appear later in life. Surgery involving the removal of the cloudy lens and the placement of an artificial one typically resolves cataracts in most people.


Glaucoma consists of a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve and cause vision loss. It’s caused by the pressure build-up in the fluid inside the eye. Early treatment, including prescription eye drops or surgery, go a long way toward preserving an individual’s vision.

Can any complications arise if left untreated?

Without treatment, people with eye problems may have trouble functioning normally. If the eye condition continues getting worse, that individual may be at risk of permanently losing their vision.

What medications treat eye problems?

There are a wide variety of medications used to treat the eye problems listed above, such as eye drops, ointments, solutions, gels, and suspensions.

Common medications may include

Chloramphenicol Antibiotics and Derivatives
Drugs used to treat eye infections (such as conjunctivitis) and sometimes ear infections
Ophthalmic - Anti-inflammatory, Glucocorticoids
Drugs used to suppress inflammation from inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and asthma.
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Ophthalmic - Anti-inflammatory, NSAIDs
Drugs used to treat inflammation, relieve mild to moderate pain, and reduce fevers.
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Ophthalmic - Decongestants
Drugs that temporarily reduce swelling of the eye's blood vessels
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Ophthalmic - Intraocular Pressure Reducing Agents, Beta-blockers
Drugs that reduce the production of fluid in your eye, thereby lowering the pressure in your eye
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Ophthalmic - Intraocular Pressure Reducing Combinations
Drugs that reduce the production of fluid in your eye, thereby lowering the pressure in your eye
Ophthalmic - Miotics
Drugs used to reduce eye pressure
Ophthalmic - Surgical Aids Other
Surgical aids for eye surgeries
Ophthalmic - Viscoelastic Agents
A gel injected into the anterior chamber during ophthalmic surgery to maintain the depth of the chamber, protect the corneal endothelium, and stabilize the vitreous
Ophthalmic Anti-infective Combinations
Drugs used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.
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Tetracycline Antibiotics and Combinations
Drugs used to treat acne and rosacea, and bacterial infections including pneumonia, lower respiratory infections, upper respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, eye infections, malaria, and typhoid
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Common Eye Disorders and Diseases - CDC

Dry macular degeneration - Mayo Clinic